Category Archives: Austria

Cremona

CREMONA City, the seat of a Bishop, on the River Po in northern Italy, southeast of Milan; and A province in modern Italy. The city was taken in 553 from the Ostrogoths by the Byzantines, and lost by them to … Continue reading

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Cracow

CRACOW KRAKÓW; Krakau (Ger). Principality in medieval Poland; A Free City, 1815-46; A voivodship (Województwo krakowskie) in 20th century Poland. All are named after the city, which was probably founded in the 8th century and which stands on the upper … Continue reading

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Constance ~ Imperial Free City

CONSTANCE, Imperial Free City.   KONSTANZ. City of southern Germany, on the Rhine as it flows from Lake Constance (Bodensee) into the smaller lake, Untersee;  the old city is on the southern bank of the river. Constance was the seat of … Continue reading

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Congress Poland

CONGRESS POLAND The Congress of Vienna, 1814-5, awarded the greater part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw to the Tsar of Russia as a separate Kingdom from his Russian possessions. It included Płock, Kalisz, Łódź, Częstochowa, Kielce, Zamość, Lublin, Łomża, … Continue reading

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Confederation of the Rhine

CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE    Or, Rhenish Confederation; RHEINBUND;  la Confédération du Rhin. In July 1806 a group of German principalities with the foreknowledge and approval of France joined together to form a new Confederation.   From the south of Germany came … Continue reading

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Cis-Leithnia

CIS-LEITHNIA   Or, Cis-Leithania; ZISLEITHANIEN. A name for the Austrian half of the Dual monarchy after the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867. (The non green area of the map) The River Leitha, a rather insignificant stream, separated Niederösterreich from the Kingdom of … Continue reading

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Cisalpine Republic

CISALPINE REPUBLIC Republic in northern Italy, one of the sister republics of the French Republic.   Its name echoed that of the Roman region of Cisalpine Gaul. It was proclaimed in May 1797 in Lombardy, the north Italian region, formerly Austrian, … Continue reading

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Cîmpulung

CÎMPULUNG Inter-war county in northern Romania, in the southern Bukovina, named after the town of Cîmpulung Moldovonesc, on the River Moldova, tributary of the Seret, west of Suceava. (There is also a town of Cîmpulung in Wallachia, capital of the … Continue reading

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Cilli

CILLI   Or, Cilly. County in the Windisch Mark on the southeastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire.   It was named after its capital, now the town of CELJE in Slovenia, ENE of Ljubljana, northwest of Zagreb, and southwest of Maribor. … Continue reading

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Chełm

CHEŁM Kholm (Rus). Voivodship (Województwo chełmskie), 1975-99, in eastern Poland, lying on the border with Ukraine and, for a short distance, Belorussia, across the River Bug. It was named after its capital, which is east of Lublin and south of … Continue reading

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Cernăuți

CERNĂUȚI Northernmost județ (county) in inter-war Romania. named after the city – Chernivtsi (Ukr); Chernovtsy (Rus); Czernowitz (Ger). Was the capital of Bukovina in the Austrian Empire until 1918 and is now the capital of the region of Chernivtsi in … Continue reading

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Cattaro

CATTARO    Italian name for the Montenegrin port of KOTOR. Like much of the Adriatic seaboard it remained Byzantine long after the interior was lost.  In the 11th century Cattaro was associated with the Principality of Duklja, a forerunner of Montenegro, … Continue reading

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Carniola

CARNIOLA    KRAIN  (Ger); KRANJSKA (Slovene). A Mark on the southeastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire; An Austrian Crownland; Briefly a province of the French Empire. Most of it lay in the upper basin of the River Sava, which rose … Continue reading

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Carinthian Mark

CARINTHIAN MARK   KÄRNTNER MARK.   Also called the CARANTANIAN MARK. District in the east of the Duchy of Carinthia in the 10th and 11th centuries, protecting its eastern flank. Adalbero of Eppenstein, who held the Mark in 1011, was promoted to … Continue reading

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Carinthia

CARINTHIA   KÄRNTEN;  Koruska (Slovene). Duchy in the Holy Roman Empire; Crownland in the Austrian Empire; Briefly a province in the French Empire Land in modern Austria. It is an Alpine region, on the southern side of the range, and is … Continue reading

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