Crna Gora


Crna Gora

The Serbian name of a country that in English is translated as Black Mountain and in Italian as MONTENEGRO. The old spelling of Tzernagora indicates the pronunciation.

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Map of Crimea showing relative position of Russia and Ukraine

Peninsula in the northern Black Sea, called by the ancient Greeks Chersonesus Taurica, the peninsula of the Tauri (the people living there).

The southern shores of the peninsula were colonised intermittently by Greeks and Byzantines, the northern lands were usually held by whoever controlled the steppelands to the north.

In the later middle ages the Crimea was held by the Khans of the Golden Horde, and Genoese traders settled in the south, particularly at Kaffa (now Feodosiya) in the southeast.

The Khanate of the Golden Horde broke up in the 15th century and in 1441 a separate Khanate of Krim emerged. It held not only the peninsula, but the lands to the north that adjoined the peninsula, and most of the lands around the Sea of Azov, so that the Khanate extended to the northwestern end of the Caucasian range.

At that time the power of the Ottoman Empire was also growing and the Khans of Krim were soon obliged to acknowledge the Sultans as overlords. Turkish hostility to the Genoese ensured that they were driven out of their Crimean settlements by 1475, when they lost Kaffa.

Raids launched from the Khanate of Krim were a constant irritation to Poland and Russia, long after the other Tatar Khanates had fallen, and necessitated the use of fortresses and of Cossacks as border fighting men.

In the 18th century Russia advanced towards the Black Sea and fought a long war with the Ottoman Turks, 1768-74. In 1774, by the Treaty of Kutchuk-Kainardji, the Ottoman government surrendered its claims to suzerainty over the Khanate of Krim, which became independent. It was the independence of the dying, and in 1783 Russia annexed the Khanate.

The peninsula and most of the lands to the north became the province of Taurida; some northern lands went to that of Ekaterinoslav; the Caucasian districts became the province of Kuban.

In 1918, after the military collapse of Russia, followed by the Bolshevik Revolution, the Crimea briefly became the Republic of Taurida, but it soon fell under the control of the Whites and served as the principal base of Admiral Wrangel, until the Ukrainian anarchists drove the Whites out in 1920. It was the Communists who ultimately won and the Crimean peninsula was made into the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921.

It was the principal autonomous republic of the Tatars, whose proportion of the population had fallen to about a third by the end of the 19th century, but who were now able to encourage Tatar culture. Eventually they fell foul of Stalin, then in 1941-4 they endured German occupation and the racialist nonsense of the Nazis.

The German withdrawal benefited the Crimean Tatars nothing. In 1944 they were deported to Central Asia, travelling in harsh conditions and on arrival subject to strict regulation. Unlike some of the other departed peoples they were not rescued by Khrushchev. Only during the last years of the Soviet Union came the beginning of the putting right, in so far as it was possible, of the wrongs done. By 1992 about 200,000 Crimean Tatars, about half the population, had returned to the Crimea.

After the deportations of 1944 the autonomous republic was reduced in 1945 to the status of a region (oblast) in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and in 1954 it was transferred to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the only part of the Soviet Union with which it was linked by land. The Russians however were the largest national group in the Crimea – some 61% of the population in 1992 – so that when the Soviet Union collapsed in late 1991 and Ukraine became independent, there was trouble between Ukraine and the Crimea.

The local assembly voted Crimea an autonomous republic in 1991 and this was accepted by the Ukrainian government in 1992, but a declaration of independence by the assembly was unacceptable and the Crimean constitution was suspended by Ukraine. Fresh elections in 1994 changed the government at the centre and led to a reiteration of Crimean independence. In 1995 the Ukrainian President assumed control for a few weeks. New elections to the Parliament made it less ardently Russian nationalist. The Ukrainian President withdrew.

In 1996 a new constitution for the Ukraine recognised the autonomy of the Crimea, while the Crimean Parliament recognised that the autonomous republic formed an integral part of the Ukraine.

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Marcher lordship in southeast Wales, one of the last to be created.

In 1463 King Edward IV gave it to his Welsh ally, William Herbert, later Earl of Pembroke. The lordship lay at the southern end of the lordship of Blaenllyfni and had been part of the King’s inheritance from his father, the Duke of York.

Crickhowell stands on the River Usk above Abergavenny and below Brecon, and today is in the southeastern corner of the county of Powys.

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View of Crevillent today

Small Muslim lordship in eastern Spain that survived the Reconquest of the 13th century. The town lies west of Elche (Elx), southwest of Alicante and northeast of Murcia, and is now in the province of Alicante (Alacant) in the Valencian Community

The lordship lay within the Kingdom of Murcia, which remained a separate Muslim state, though paying tribute to Castile, until its independence was lost after the Muslim revolt against Castile, 1264-6. In 1296 (confirmed by treaty in 1304) James II of Aragon, taking advantage of a disputed succession in Castile, took over parts of Murcia, including the lordship of Crevillente.

The lords belonged to the family of the Banu Hudayr. After the death of Muhammed II in 1316 a dispute arose within the family and in 1318 the separate existence of the lordship ended.

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Map of France showing Creuse highlighted at the centre.

The Département de la Creuse (23) is in the northwest of the Massif Central in south central France. The River Creuse, a tributary of the Vienne, flows NNW through the department.

It was formed in 1790 from most of La Marche and parts of Berry, Bourbonnais, Limousin and Poitou.

The Creuse was in unoccupied France, 1940-2. In 1941 the Vichy government placed it under the authority of the Regional Prefect at Limoges for police and economic matters,

Since 1960 it has been in the northeast of the Limousin region.

The capital is Guéret. The sub-prefecture for the other arrondissement is Aubusson (in the southeast). Bourganeuf (southwest) and Boussac (northeast) were also sub-prefectures, 1800-1926.

In 1790 Guéret, never before an episcopal see, became the diocese that covered the new department, but in 1802 its territory was added to the diocese of Limoges.

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CRETE KRÍTI; Creta (Lat); Candia (It); Girit (Tk).

Satellite image of Crete

Island in the eastern Mediterranean (the fifth largest Mediterranean island) and the southernmost region of Greece.

It was part of the Roman Empire, forming a province with Cyrenaica on the north African coast until the reforms of the late 3rd century made it a separate province which became part of the diocese of Macedonia. In 825 it was occupied by the Arabs and became a base for raids on the mainland until it was reconquered for Byzantium in 960-61.

In the division of the spoils after the Fourth Crusade had seized Constantinople in 1204, Crete was allocated to Boniface of Montferrat, but he preferred to concentrate on what became his Kingdom of Thessalonica, and so he sold his rights to Venice. It became the greatest of the Mediterranean possessions of the Most Serene Republic – Cyprus was bigger, but only came to Venice as the Turkish menace gathered, and was lost earlier.

The Venetians called the island Candia, from the Italian name for the port of Heraklion (Iráklion). It remained Venetian until the Turkish conquest of 1669, and even then two coastal enclaves at Suda and Spinalonga survived until they were captured by the Turks in 1715. In 1718 they were ceded by the Republic.

With the increasing revolt in Greece against Ottoman rule, Egyptian troops occupied Crete in 1822 (the ruler of Egypt, nominally subordinate to the Ottoman Empire, was behaving like an independent ally at this time). Ottoman authority returned in 1840 but a series of revolts followed, encouraged and aided by mainland Greeks: the problem on the island was compounded by the fact that some of the Cretans had become Muslims and it was on them that the Ottoman government tended to rely for administering Crete.

The revolts led to international crises and eventually to war between the Ottoman Empire and Greece in 1897, a war which the Turks won, though the diplomatic intervention of the Great Powers saved Greece itself from too great punishment. So far as Crete was concerned, the Great Powers insisted that the island become autonomous, though it remained part of the Empire. They set up a Commission of their representatives to supervise the island’s government. In the autumn of 1898, after the withdrawal of the forces of the Powers most strongly opposed to Greece – Austria and Germany – Prince George of Greece became the High Commissioner for the island.

The majority of the island’s representatives wanted union with Greece, though the Muslims did not. The Greek government had to behave with caution; even when the Cretan leader, Venizelos, became involved in Greek politics, he was obliged to give up his Cretan offices and as Greek Prime Minister he acted carefully. Prince George was replaced by a former Greek Prime Minster in 1906. The Young Turk revolution in the Ottoman Empire in 1908 increased the tensions of the area and the forces of the Great Powers withdrew from the island in 1909, though a naval presence remained.

Britain, with much influence in the region, was of split mind, for it was influenced both by the sentimental philhellenism of classically educated men and by the realpolitik of the rulers of a world Empire, who, with many Muslim subjects, did not wish to alienate the leading Muslim power. Drift became policy; when for example the High Commissioner’s term expired in 1911 no successor could be appointed and ad hoc arrangements operated. The matter was resolved by war, not in Crete, but on the mainland, when in 1912-13 the Balkan Powers almost drove Turkey out of Europe.

The peace settlement for that conflict had as a by-product the union of Crete with Greece.

Crete is now a region of Greece, divided into four provinces: (from west to east) Khanía, Réthimnon, Iráklion, and Lasíthi.

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Map showing location of Cres off the Croatian coast.

Island in the Gulf of Quarnero (Kvanerić), east of Istria. It belonged to medieval Croatia (and so to Hungary after 1102). For a couple of decades in the 14th century it was under Venetian suzerainty, but had returned to Hungary by 1358. In 1409 it returned once more to Venetian control.

It became Austrian when the Venetian Republic was destroyed in 1797, was ceded to Napoleon’s Kingdom of Italy in 1805 and transferred to the Illyrian Provinces of the French Empire in 1809.

In 1814 the island reverted to Austria, became Italian after the First World War and Yugoslav after the Second.

It is now in Croatia.

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  1. City, the seat of a Bishop, on the River Po in northern Italy, southeast of Milan; and
  2. A province in modern Italy.


The city was taken in 553 from the Ostrogoths by the Byzantines, and lost by them to the Lombards in 604.

Later the Holy Roman Emperors gave much political authority to the Bishop, but he was expelled from the city c.1027, and the city then enjoyed two to three centuries of virtual independence. It was a member of the Lombard League in 1168 but its rivalry with Milan, the leading opponent of the Emperor among the north Italian cities, made its attitude sometimes equivocal, sometimes actively Ghibelline.

By the mid-13th century its independence was under threat, and the northern warlord Pallavicini held it, 1254-66, before being ousted by a local associate, after which Guelph influence (anti-Imperial) was strong. The Emperor Henry VII took the city in 1311, the Visconti briefly controlled it in 1313, two or three years later Robert of Naples temporarily held the city.

Its independence petered out until in 1334 it submitted to the Visconti rulers of Milan. It remained part of Milan, except for a Venetian interlude 1499-1509, until Lombardy was lost by Austria to uniting Italy in 1860.

The province of Cremona lies between the Po, the lower Adda, and the lower Oglio, and is now in the Lombardia region.

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Town in northern Italy, ESE of Milan and northwest of Cremona. It was an ally of Milan in the early struggles against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, but fell to him in 1160 and was largely destroyed.

Cremona was given dominance over it. Rebuilt in the 1180s and sold to Cremona in 1191, its independence was reestablished in 1196 with the help of Milan. It became part of the lands of Milan in 1335, but after the death of Gaingaleazzo Visconti in 1402 it recovered independence for a time, but fell under Milanese control again in 1422.

In negotiations with Venice in 1449, Sforza, the claimant of Milan, offered Crema to Venice and this was confirmed in the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Thereafter Crema and the district around it formed a Venetian enclave within the Duchy of Milan.

In 1797, when the Venetian Republic was consigned to the dustbin, Crema became part of the Cisalpine Republic and is today in the province of Cremona and the region of Lombardia.

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The Bishop of Durham owned the manor of Crayke, which lay southeast of Thirsk, southwest of Helmsley, and a short distance east of Easingwold.

It was therefore an exclave of the County Palatine of Durham within the North Riding of Yorkshire until 1844.

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  1. District in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now divided between North Yorkshire and Lancashire;
  2. A local government district in North Yorkshire since 1974.

Craven is the district in and around the Aire Gap, where the valley of the River Aire separates the northern and southern Pennines. The medieval rural deanery of Craven in the Archdiocese of York extended to all the Yorkshire lands west of the Aire Gap, so it included Gisburn on the Ribble and the Yorkshire sector of the Forest of Bowland.

The medieval rural deanery of Craven in the Archdiocese of York extended to all the Yorkshire lands west of the Aire Gap, so it included Gisburn on the Ribble and the Yorkshire sector of the Forest of Bowland.

In 1974 these more distant parts, together with the districts around Barnoldswick and Eadsby, in the Aire Gap itself, went to Lancashire. The rest became a district in North Yorkshire, with its administrative centre in Skipton, the principal town in Craven.

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The west of the Principality of Wallachia (now the southwestern region in Romania) was sometimes called the Banat of Craiova, from its capital, a city on the River Jiu, which flows southwards from the Transylvanian Alps to the Danube.

The city is today the capital of the Romanian county of Dolj. See OLTENIA.

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A Royal Burgh on the North Sea coast of Fife, Crail was the seat of a Sheriffdom in eastern Scotland, which appeared some time in the period 1154/78, at a time when the King’s mother held the area.

By 1214, when King William the Lion died, it had disappeared, and the sheriff for Fife had responsibility.

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