Craven

CRAVEN

  1. District in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now divided between North Yorkshire and Lancashire;
  2. A local government district in North Yorkshire since 1974.

Craven is the district in and around the Aire Gap, where the valley of the River Aire separates the northern and southern Pennines. The medieval rural deanery of Craven in the Archdiocese of York extended to all the Yorkshire lands west of the Aire Gap, so it included Gisburn on the Ribble and the Yorkshire sector of the Forest of Bowland.

The medieval rural deanery of Craven in the Archdiocese of York extended to all the Yorkshire lands west of the Aire Gap, so it included Gisburn on the Ribble and the Yorkshire sector of the Forest of Bowland.

In 1974 these more distant parts, together with the districts around Barnoldswick and Eadsby, in the Aire Gap itself, went to Lancashire. The rest became a district in North Yorkshire, with its administrative centre in Skipton, the principal town in Craven.

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Crati

CRATI

See VAL DI CRATI.

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Craiova

CRAIOVA

The west of the Principality of Wallachia (now the southwestern region in Romania) was sometimes called the Banat of Craiova, from its capital, a city on the River Jiu, which flows southwards from the Transylvanian Alps to the Danube.

The city is today the capital of the Romanian county of Dolj. See OLTENIA.

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Crail

CRAIL

A Royal Burgh on the North Sea coast of Fife, Crail was the seat of a Sheriffdom in eastern Scotland, which appeared some time in the period 1154/78, at a time when the King’s mother held the area.

By 1214, when King William the Lion died, it had disappeared, and the sheriff for Fife had responsibility.

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Craikshire

CRAIKSHIRE See CRAYKESHIRE.

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Cracow

CRACOW KRAKÓW; Krakau (Ger).

  1. Principality in medieval Poland;
  2. A Free City, 1815-46;
  3. A voivodship (Województwo krakowskie) in 20th century Poland.

All are named after the city, which was probably founded in the 8th century and which stands on the upper Vistula.

Cracow was also the seat of a Bishop, who was himself a territorial prince as Duke of Siewierz, a territory in Silesia bought in 1443 and held until 1795.The city became the most important in Małopolska (Little Poland), whose Prince or Duke was recognised as the Senior Prince of Poland after the partition of the Polish lands in 1138 among several Piast princes.

The Senior Prince held his own Principality (for example, the first held Silesia, the second Mazovia) plus Little Poland. After the death of Henry II fighting the Mongols in 1241 the Senior Principate was titular and Little Poland was then often called the Principality or Duchy of Cracow.

In the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 Cracow became part of the Habsburg lands but was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1809. In 1815 the city of Cracow, together with a strip of territory along the upper Vistula, was declared in the Treaty of Vienna to be “for ever a Free, Independent and strictly Neutral City,” under the protection of Austria, Russia and Prussia.

The new city-state lay at the point where the three protecting powers met in the Poland they had divided between them: the Congress Kingdom under the Tsar, the Kingdom of Galicia under the Austrian Emperor, and Prussian Silesia.”

“For ever” came to an end in 1846, when the protecting powers, irritated by Polish conspiracies against them – conspiracies encouraged and helped by the Free City of Cracow – ended Cracow’s independence and added its territory to Austrian Galicia.

The Austrian Emperor added another title to his collection: Grand Duke of Cracow. The conspiracies were bungled and reckless, but the instinct of the three powers was to repress, as though the Poles were ungraciously ungrateful for having had their independence destroyed.

After the First World War Cracow became Polish again and the capital of a large voivodship in southern Poland bearing its name.

During the German occupation, 1939-44, it was the residence of Hans Frank, the FreeGovernor-General of the General Government. After the war it was capital of a smaller voivodship in restored Poland (see KRAKÓW).

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Cowal

COWAL

cowal-area-map

Ancient district in western Scotland, the peninsula that lies between Loch Fyne, on the one hand, and Loch Goil, Loch Long and the Firth of Clyde, on the other.

It belonged to the Scottish Kingdom of Dariada, and was held by a branch of the Cenél Gabráin, called the Cenél Comgaill. This was descended from a prince called Comgall, from whom family and district derived their names.

Cowal became southeastern Argyllshire.

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Coverlui

COVERLUI

Former județ (county) in Romania, once part of Moldavia, bounded in the east by the Prut, and in the south by the Siret and, after their confluence, the Danube.

Its capital, Galați, now gives its name to the equivalent county in modern Romania.

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Covasna

COVASNA

English: Sfîntu Gheorghe – also known as Sfânt...

English: Sfîntu Gheorghe – also known as Sfântu Gheorghe. In Hungarian (before 1919 and also between 1940 and 1944 it was part of Hungary and) officially called Sepsiszentgyörgy. The town has a 3/4 Hungarian population. Behind the camera TRICOTAJE … The machine is a Gloria CP-12 made in Romania by Semanatoarea which built Claas and Laverda combines under licence. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Present-day județ (county) in central Romania. Before 1918 it formed easternmost Transylvania (the county of Háromszék) and between the wars was, more or less, the Romanian județ of Trei Scaune. Sfîntu Gheorghe, the capital of all these counties, is on the River Olt, northeast of Brașov.

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Couserans

COUSERANS Or, Conserans.

Coat of arms of Couserans

Coat of arms of Couserans (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

  1. Vicomté in the central Pyrenees;
  2. A diocese, which belonged to the province of Auch.

The Vicomté became separate in the late 10th century, when it was held by the younger son of a Count of Carcassone, as his share of that County. In the early 12th century it became part of the County of Foix, which lay to its east, but later in the century it passed to a member of the family of the Counts of Comminges, which lay to its west. The rights of the Vicomté were eventually scattered among several families through heiresses. In the Ancien Régime Couserans was the southeasternmost corner of the immense gouvernement of Guyenne & Gascony and is now in the Department of the Ariège. The Bishop lived at St Lizier. The diocese was suppressed in 1790.

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Courland

COURLAND See KURLAND.

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Coucy

COUCY

"Barry of six, vair and gules", the ...

“Barry of six, vair and gules”, the coat-of-arms of Coucy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Medieval lordship in Picardy in northern France;  the castle and hill-top town of Coucy lie south of St Quentin and north of Soissons.

The lands originally belonged to the Archbishop of Reims, and became a lordship in the 10th century. The earlier lords belonged to the family of Boves; the last three (1310-97) to that of the Counts of Guines. Enguerrand VI (d.1346) married a Habsburg while the first wife of Enguerrand VII (d.1397) was the daughter of Edward III of England. Enguerrand VII’s heiress sold Coucy to the Duke of Orleans, whose grandson became Louis XII in 1498.

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Cottbus

COTTBUS Or, KottbusChosebuz (Sorb).

Map of the District of Cottbus in the German D...

Map of the District of Cottbus in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The districts existed between 1952 and 1990. Most of the district’s area belongs now to the State of Brandenburg. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Town on the River Spree, southeast of Berlin, northeast of Dresden, a Stadtkreis in southeastern Brandenburg.

It belonged to Lower Lusatia (Niederlausitz), which was acquired by Brandenburg in 1448. When the rest of Lower Lusatia was lost in 1462 the district around Cottbus remained an enclave of Brandenburg within the Kingdom of Bohemia (within Saxony from 1635). In 1807 it was transferred to Saxony but in 1815 returned to Prussia.

In the German Democratic Republic a district of Cottbus was created in 1952, mainly from the south of the abolished Land of Brandenburg, but including some districts of Niederlausitz around the towns of Hoyerswerda and Weißwasser, previously in the Land of Sachsen.

Just before Germany was reunited the Länder were reconstituted in 1990 and the district of Cottbus disappeared, though in Brandenburg there are now both a Stadtkreis and a Landkreis of Cottbus.

The district around Cottbus still has a Slav-speaking population, descended from the Sorbs, who were subjected in the 10th century.

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Côtes-du-Nord

Carte du Réseau des Chemins de Fer des Côtes-d...

Carte du Réseau des Chemins de Fer des Côtes-du-Nord (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

CÔTES-DU NORD  See Côtes-d’Armor .

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Côtes-d’Armor

CÔTES-D’ARMOR  The Département des Côtes-d’Armor (22) is in northwestern France and was called CÔTES-DU-NORD until 1991.

It was formed from northern Brittany in 1790.  Armor is an old Celtic name for the coastlands of Brittany and Normandy, and Armorica was the Roman name for Brittany. The former name, meaning “Northern coasts”, is vague:  the department could have been anywhere on the Channel coast.

The Côtes-du-Nord was in occupied France, 1940-4. In 1942 the Vichy government placed it under the authority of the Regional Prefect at Rennes for police and economic matters.

The department is today in the Bretagne administrative region.

The capital is St Brieuc, which is also the bishopric.. The sub-prefectures for the other arrondissements are Dinan (in the east), Guincamp (west-central) and Lannion (northwest). Loudéac, in  the south, was a sub-prefecture, 1800-1926.

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