Category Archives: Russia

Cracow

CRACOW KRAKÓW; Krakau (Ger). Principality in medieval Poland; A Free City, 1815-46; A voivodship (Województwo krakowskie) in 20th century Poland. All are named after the city, which was probably founded in the 8th century and which stands on the upper … Continue reading

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Congress Poland

CONGRESS POLAND The Congress of Vienna, 1814-5, awarded the greater part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw to the Tsar of Russia as a separate Kingdom from his Russian possessions. It included Płock, Kalisz, Łódź, Częstochowa, Kielce, Zamość, Lublin, Łomża, … Continue reading

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Circassia

CIRCASSIA Region in the northwest Caucasus. The West and East Circassian languages (Adygei and Kabardian) together with Abkhaz and Abazanian constitute the Northwest Caucasus language group. The Russian Principality of Tmutorokan, in the region between the Sea of Azov and … Continue reading

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Cîmpulung

CÎMPULUNG Inter-war county in northern Romania, in the southern Bukovina, named after the town of Cîmpulung Moldovonesc, on the River Moldova, tributary of the Seret, west of Suceava. (There is also a town of Cîmpulung in Wallachia, capital of the … Continue reading

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Ciechanów

Voivodship (Województwo ciechanowskie), 1975-99, in east central Poland, named after its capital, which is north of Warsaw. Continue reading

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Chuvashia

CHUVASHIA Autonomous Republic in the Russian Federation, lying almost entirely south of the Volga, west of Kazan. The Chuvash were once nomadic. Their language is related to Turkish but fits into none of the established Turkic groups. Their legends make … Continue reading

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Chernigov

CHERNIGOV   CHERNIHIV (Ukr);  Czernihòw (Pol). A medieval Russian Principality; A Russian province; A Soviet and now Ukrainian oblast (region).  Named after the city of Chernigov (now Chernihiv), which is northeast of Kiev and stands on the River Desna, a tributary … Continue reading

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Cherkessia

CHERKESSIA District on the lower northern slopes of the northwestern Caucasus, drained by the River Kuban, on which the town of Cherkessk, which is south of Stavropol, stands.   The Cherkess are an indigenous Caucasian people, whose language is Abazanian, a … Continue reading

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Chełm

CHEŁM Kholm (Rus). Voivodship (Województwo chełmskie), 1975-99, in eastern Poland, lying on the border with Ukraine and, for a short distance, Belorussia, across the River Bug. It was named after its capital, which is east of Lublin and south of … Continue reading

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Chechnya

CHECHNYA    Or, Chechenya (which was once quite common but has lost out). District on the northern slopes of the Caucasus;  an autonomous Republic in the Russian Federation from 1992, but a self-proclaimed independent Republic from 1991 and a conquered territory … Continue reading

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Chechen-Ingush Republic

CHECHEN-INGUSH REPUBLIC The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast (Region) on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains was formed within the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in 1934 by joining the Chechen and Ingush autonomous regions, formed in 1922 and 1924,.   The … Continue reading

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Cetatea Albă

CETATEA ALBĂ The easternmost judeţ  (county) in inter-war Romania, bounded by the Dniester to the north and the Black Sea to the east. It had earlier belonged to the Ottoman district of Bujak and the Russian province of Bessarabia, and … Continue reading

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Cernăuți

CERNĂUȚI Northernmost județ (county) in inter-war Romania. named after the city – Chernivtsi (Ukr); Chernovtsy (Rus); Czernowitz (Ger). Was the capital of Bukovina in the Austrian Empire until 1918 and is now the capital of the region of Chernivtsi in … Continue reading

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Cerigo

CERIGO   Italian form of KÍTHIRA (Cythera, old spelling) Greek island off the coast of the southeastern Peloponnese (said to be the island where Aphrodite rose from the waves). After the Fourth Crusade and the destruction of the Byzantine Empire in … Continue reading

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Cattaro

CATTARO    Italian name for the Montenegrin port of KOTOR. Like much of the Adriatic seaboard it remained Byzantine long after the interior was lost.  In the 11th century Cattaro was associated with the Principality of Duklja, a forerunner of Montenegro, … Continue reading

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