Category Archives: Luxemburg


CHINY County in the Holy Roman Empire from the late 10th century.   It was in the western Ardennes, Chiny itself standing on the River Semois, ESE of Bouillon (in southeastern Belgium).  The County was sold in two stages in 1345 … Continue reading

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BOURBON     Bourbonnais (pays). Medieval lordship, later a Duchy;   An Ancien Régime gouvernement. Situated in central France, north of the Massif Central, and focussed on the River Allier.   The castle of Bourbon l’Archambault, as it became known from the Christian … Continue reading

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BOUILLON Lordship in the Holy Roman Empire, and later a Duchy in the borderlands between France and the southern Netherlands.  The town of Bouillon is at the present time near the French frontier and northeast of Sedan.  It stands on … Continue reading

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BERGAMO City in northern Italy, northeast of Milan; A province in the Lombardia region. The city was one of the virtually independent cities of northern Italy in the 12th and much of the 13th centuries, though in the later 13th … Continue reading

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BELGIUM    BELGIË (Flemish); La BELGIQUE (Fr); Belgien (Ger). One of the Low Countries in western Europe, predominantly Roman Catholic, but divided by language.   Flemish (Dutch) is spoken by nearly three out of five of the population, Walloon (French) by almost … Continue reading

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BAR(2), County and Duchy.  later Bar-le-Duc,  Barrois (pays). Medieval French speaking County, later a Duchy. (Bar in the French names signified the place where a river valley opened out on to the plain – the river in Bar-le-Duc’s case was … Continue reading

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