The Congress of Vienna, 1814-5, awarded the greater part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw to the Tsar of Russia as a separate Kingdom from his Russian possessions.
It included Płock, Kalisz, Łódź, Częstochowa, Kielce, Zamość, Lublin, Łomża, and Suwałki, but not Poznañ, Cracow or Białystok.
The Polish Revolt of 1830-1 led the Tsar to abolish all the rights of the Kingdom, and in 1837 it was divided up into provinces on the Russian model. In name the Kingdom survived until 1864, when in the aftermath of the 1863 uprising it was formally abolished.
The Germans in 1916 partially revived it in the hope of helping their war effort against the Russians. It limped on frailly. It was useful amidst the later welter of war aims declaring for an independent Poland that there was actually a Polish state up and hobbling.