Author Archives: davidseurope

Cross of Tipperary

CROSS OF TIPPERARY Former Irish county: see TIPPERARY. link_coming_soon

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Crostolo Department in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, named from the river, a tributary of the Po, on which its capital, Reggio nell’Emilia, stands. It was formed in 1797 from, and afterwards returned to, the Duchy of Modena.

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CROSSEN Now KROSNO ODRZANSKI. Town in western Poland, at the confluence of the Odra (Oder) and the Bodr, northwest of Zielona Gora and southeast of Frankfurt an der Oder. Crossen belonged to the Duchy of Glogau after the partition of … Continue reading

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CROMARTYSHIRE CROMARTY. Medieval Sheriffdom in northern Scotland. A later county. The town of Cromarty stands on the Firth of that name at the northeastern end of the Black Isle, north of Inverness. The sheriff was responsible for a small district … Continue reading

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Croatia, White


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CROATIA HRVATSKA; Horváto (Magyar); Kroatien (Ger); la Croatie (Fr). Country of southeast central Europe or of the northwest Balkans. It has enjoyed three periods as an independent state: A Kingdom in the 10th and the 11th centuries, An ally of … Continue reading

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Crna Gora

CRNA GORA The Serbian name of a country that in English is translated as Black Mountain and in Italian as MONTENEGRO. The old spelling of Tzernagora indicates the pronunciation.

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CRIMEA KRYM; Krim (Tk). Peninsula in the northern Black Sea, called by the ancient Greeks Chersonesus Taurica, the peninsula of the Tauri (the people living there). The southern shores of the peninsula were colonised intermittently by Greeks and Byzantines, the northern lands were … Continue reading

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CRICKHOWELL Marcher lordship in southeast Wales, one of the last to be created. In 1463 King Edward IV gave it to his Welsh ally, William Herbert, later Earl of Pembroke. The lordship lay at the southern end of the lordship … Continue reading

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CREVILLENTE Small Muslim lordship in eastern Spain that survived the Reconquest of the 13th century. The town lies west of Elche (Elx), southwest of Alicante and northeast of Murcia, and is now in the province of Alicante (Alacant) in the … Continue reading

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CREUSE The Département de la Creuse (23) is in the northwest of the Massif Central in south central France. The River Creuse, a tributary of the Vienne, flows NNW through the department. It was formed in 1790 from most of La … Continue reading

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CRETE KRÍTI; Creta (Lat); Candia (It); Girit (Tk). Island in the eastern Mediterranean (the fifth largest Mediterranean island) and the southernmost region of Greece. It was part of the Roman Empire, forming a province with Cyrenaica on the north African coast until … Continue reading

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CRES CHERSO (It). Island in the Gulf of Quarnero (Kvanerić), east of Istria. It belonged to medieval Croatia (and so to Hungary after 1102). For a couple of decades in the 14th century it was under Venetian suzerainty, but had returned to … Continue reading

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CREMONA City, the seat of a Bishop, on the River Po in northern Italy, southeast of Milan; and A province in modern Italy. The city was taken in 553 from the Ostrogoths by the Byzantines, and lost by them to … Continue reading

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CREMA Town in northern Italy, ESE of Milan and northwest of Cremona. It was an ally of Milan in the early struggles against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, but fell to him in 1160 and was largely destroyed. Cremona was given dominance … Continue reading

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