Author Archives: davidseurope


CREMONA City, the seat of a Bishop, on the River Po in northern Italy, southeast of Milan; and A province in modern Italy. The city was taken in 553 from the Ostrogoths by the Byzantines, and lost by them to … Continue reading

Posted in Austria, Italy, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment


CREMA Town in northern Italy, ESE of Milan and northwest of Cremona. It was an ally of Milan in the early struggles against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, but fell to him in 1160 and was largely destroyed. Cremona was given dominance … Continue reading

Posted in Italy | Leave a comment


CRAYKESHIRE The Bishop of Durham owned the manor of Crayke, which lay southeast of Thirsk, southwest of Helmsley, and a short distance east of Easingwold. It was therefore an exclave of the County Palatine of Durham within the North Riding … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment


CRAVEN District in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now divided between North Yorkshire and Lancashire; A local government district in North Yorkshire since 1974. Craven is the district in and around the Aire Gap, where the valley of the River … Continue reading

Posted in England | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment


CRATI See VAL DI CRATI. link_to_follow

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


CRAIOVA The west of the Principality of Wallachia (now the southwestern region in Romania) was sometimes called the Banat of Craiova, from its capital, a city on the River Jiu, which flows southwards from the Transylvanian Alps to the Danube. … Continue reading

Posted in Romania | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment


CRAIL A Royal Burgh on the North Sea coast of Fife, Crail was the seat of a Sheriffdom in eastern Scotland, which appeared some time in the period 1154/78, at a time when the King’s mother held the area. By … Continue reading

Posted in Scotland | Tagged , | Leave a comment



Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


CRACOW KRAKÓW; Krakau (Ger). Principality in medieval Poland; A Free City, 1815-46; A voivodship (Województwo krakowskie) in 20th century Poland. All are named after the city, which was probably founded in the 8th century and which stands on the upper … Continue reading

Posted in Austria, Germany, Poland, Russia | Tagged , , | Leave a comment


COWAL Ancient district in western Scotland, the peninsula that lies between Loch Fyne, on the one hand, and Loch Goil, Loch Long and the Firth of Clyde, on the other. It belonged to the Scottish Kingdom of Dariada, and was … Continue reading

Posted in Scotland | Leave a comment


COVERLUI Former județ (county) in Romania, once part of Moldavia, bounded in the east by the Prut, and in the south by the Siret and, after their confluence, the Danube. Its capital, Galați, now gives its name to the equivalent … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


COVASNA Present-day județ (county) in central Romania. Before 1918 it formed easternmost Transylvania (the county of Háromszék) and between the wars was, more or less, the Romanian județ of Trei Scaune. Sfîntu Gheorghe, the capital of all these counties, is on … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


COUSERANS Or, Conserans. Vicomté in the central Pyrenees; A diocese, which belonged to the province of Auch. The Vicomté became separate in the late 10th century, when it was held by the younger son of a Count of Carcassone, as … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


COURLAND See KURLAND. link to follow

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


COUCY Medieval lordship in Picardy in northern France;  the castle and hill-top town of Coucy lie south of St Quentin and north of Soissons. The lands originally belonged to the Archbishop of Reims, and became a lordship in the 10th … Continue reading

Posted in England, France | Tagged | Leave a comment