Category Archives: Romania


CRAIOVA The west of the Principality of Wallachia (now the southwestern region in Romania) was sometimes called the Banat of Craiova, from its capital, a city on the River Jiu, which flows southwards from the Transylvanian Alps to the Danube. … Continue reading

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COVERLUI Former județ (county) in Romania, once part of Moldavia, bounded in the east by the Prut, and in the south by the Siret and, after their confluence, the Danube. Its capital, Galați, now gives its name to the equivalent … Continue reading

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COVASNA Present-day județ (county) in central Romania. Before 1918 it formed easternmost Transylvania (the county of Háromszék) and between the wars was, more or less, the Romanian județ of Trei Scaune. Sfîntu Gheorghe, the capital of all these counties, is on … Continue reading

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CONSTANȚA Province of eastern Romania, lying between the northward-flowing Danube and the Black Sea, and named after the port on the Black Sea.   It is in the Dobrudja, which was ceded to Romania in 1878 by the Ottoman Empire.

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CLUJ Județ (county) in northwestern Romania, named after one of the most important cities of Transylvania, gained from Hungary 1918/20 and temporarily returned in 1940-4 (the Hungarian county was called Kolosz). The city of Cluj is called Kolozsvár in Magyar … Continue reading

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CIUC Inter-war county in Romania, which included the upper reaches of the River Olt, a tributary of the Danube. Before 1918-19, it was the Hungarian county of Csík, in eastern Transylvania, and was temporarily returned to Hungary, 1940-4. The capital, … Continue reading

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CÎMPULUNG Inter-war county in northern Romania, in the southern Bukovina, named after the town of Cîmpulung Moldovonesc, on the River Moldova, tributary of the Seret, west of Suceava. (There is also a town of Cîmpulung in Wallachia, capital of the … Continue reading

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Cetatea Albă

CETATEA ALBĂ The easternmost judeţ  (county) in inter-war Romania, bounded by the Dniester to the north and the Black Sea to the east. It had earlier belonged to the Ottoman district of Bujak and the Russian province of Bessarabia, and … Continue reading

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CERNĂUȚI Northernmost județ (county) in inter-war Romania. named after the city – Chernivtsi (Ukr); Chernovtsy (Rus); Czernowitz (Ger). Was the capital of Bukovina in the Austrian Empire until 1918 and is now the capital of the region of Chernivtsi in … Continue reading

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CARAŞ Inter-war județ (county) in western Romania, before 1918 part of the Hungarian county (megye) of Krasso-Szöreny, the eastern county in the Banat.   After various changes in the postwar period the counties in the Romanian Banat have been two in … Continue reading

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CALIACRA Southeasternmost county of Romania, 1913-1940. Part of the Southern Dobrudja, Bulgarian before 1913 and since 1940.

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CÃLARÃŞI  Romanian județ (county) southeast of Bucharest, formed when the Bucharest region was reorganised.

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CAHUL County in Romania between the world wars, a part of Bessarabia.   It lay east of the River Prut and south of Kishinev. Russian pre-1918, Soviet post-1940/1944, now in Moldova.

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Byzantine Empire

BYZANTINE EMPIRE   Also called in English the Eastern Roman Empire, the Later RomanEmpire, or from the Latin name of the Greek city of Byzantion, site of the later Constantinople, BYZANTIUM. 1. Origins. The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the … Continue reading

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BUZÃU   County in southeast central Romania (formerly part of Wallachia), on the southern slopes of the Transylvanian Alps. Named after its capital, which is northeast of Bucharest.

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