Tag Archives: Ottoman Empire


CRETE KRÍTI; Creta (Lat); Candia (It); Girit (Tk). Island in the eastern Mediterranean (the fifth largest Mediterranean island) and the southernmost region of Greece. It was part of the Roman Empire, forming a province with Cyrenaica on the north African coast until … Continue reading

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CONSTANTINOPLE The city built by the Emperor Constantine the Great on the site of the Greek city of Byzantion (Byzantium to the Romans) as capital for the Eastern Roman Empire – the new Rome. It was capital for the Roman … Continue reading

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CONSTANȚA Province of eastern Romania, lying between the northward-flowing Danube and the Black Sea, and named after the port on the Black Sea.   It is in the Dobrudja, which was ceded to Romania in 1878 by the Ottoman Empire.

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Cetatea Albă

CETATEA ALBĂ The easternmost judeţ  (county) in inter-war Romania, bounded by the Dniester to the north and the Black Sea to the east. It had earlier belonged to the Ottoman district of Bujak and the Russian province of Bessarabia, and … Continue reading

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CERIGO   Italian form of KÍTHIRA (Cythera, old spelling) Greek island off the coast of the southeastern Peloponnese (said to be the island where Aphrodite rose from the waves). After the Fourth Crusade and the destruction of the Byzantine Empire in … Continue reading

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BUKOVINA     BUKOVYNA (Ukr);  BUCOVINA (Rom);  Buchenland (Ger). Region now mostly in the southern part of the western Ukraine but partly in northeastern Romania.   It lies between the Carpathians and the River Dniester, contains the upper waters of the River Siret … Continue reading

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BUJAK     BUDZHAK (Rus and Ukr);  BUGEAC (Rum);  Bucak (Tk). Region on the Black Sea coast, now in Ukraine, lying between the lowest course of the Danube, including its delta, and the estuary of the Dniester. It was part of the … Continue reading

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BRDA Region now in central Montenegro, which in the 18th century lay east and northeast of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro, though its tribal chieftains usually cooperated with the Prince-Bishop. After the Montenegrins had trounced the Ottomans in battle in 1796, … Continue reading

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BOSNIA    BOSNA (SbC and Tk);  Bosznia (Magyar). Region in the northwestern Balkans, originally the name of a small district, but later used for a wider region, and for:- A Hungarian banate (province); A Kingdom; An Ottoman eyelat (province) from 1580; … Continue reading

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BOEOTIA     VOIOTOÍA. District in classical Greece (when its chief town was Thebes) A nome (department) in modern Greece (capital Livadia). Boeotia is the isthmus which lies between the Gulf of Corinth and the Strait of Euboea, and which connects the … Continue reading

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Black Sea Province/District

BLACK SEA PROVINCE/DISTRICT     CHERNOMORSKAYA.   A strip of territory in the Russian Empire between the Black Sea and the northwestern Caucasus, extending from the region around Anapa and Novorossiysk southeastwards to the borders of Abkhazia. The region had been subject to … Continue reading

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BIHAR/BIHOR   Bihar was a county (megye) in the Kingdom of Hungary, south and southeast of Debrecen and west of Cluj, which took its name from a mountain group.   After the Ottoman conquest it belonged to the Partium, the region of … Continue reading

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BESSARABIA     BASARABIA (Romanian);  BESSARABIIA (Russian). Region between the Rivers Pruth and Dniester, extending north- and northwestwards from the northern arm of the Danube delta to the district around Khotyn in the northwest; A province in Tsarist Russia, 1812-1917; A part … Continue reading

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BELGRADE     BEOGRAD. City at the confluence of the Rivers Danube and Sava, capital of Serbia and Yugoslavia.  As the Roman city of Singidunum, it was the headquarters of the Danube fleet, and was, except when Dacia was held by Rome, … Continue reading

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Banat Bánság

BANAT  BÁNSÁG (Magyar). A region, formerly in the Kingdom of Hungary and now divided between Romania and Serbia, lying westwards from the Transylvanian Alps and bordered on the south, west and north by the Rivers Danube, Tisza, and Maros (Mureª). … Continue reading

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