- City, the seat of a Bishop, on the River Po in northern Italy, southeast of Milan; and
- A province in modern Italy.
The city was taken in 553 from the Ostrogoths by the Byzantines, and lost by them to the Lombards in 604.
Later the Holy Roman Emperors gave much political authority to the Bishop, but he was expelled from the city c.1027, and the city then enjoyed two to three centuries of virtual independence. It was a member of the Lombard League in 1168 but its rivalry with Milan, the leading opponent of the Emperor among the north Italian cities, made its attitude sometimes equivocal, sometimes actively Ghibelline.
By the mid-13th century its independence was under threat, and the northern warlord Pallavicini held it, 1254-66, before being ousted by a local associate, after which Guelph influence (anti-Imperial) was strong. The Emperor Henry VII took the city in 1311, the Visconti briefly controlled it in 1313, two or three years later Robert of Naples temporarily held the city.
Its independence petered out until in 1334 it submitted to the Visconti rulers of Milan. It remained part of Milan, except for a Venetian interlude 1499-1509, until Lombardy was lost by Austria to uniting Italy in 1860.
The province of Cremona lies between the Po, the lower Adda, and the lower Oglio, and is now in the Lombardia region.