Category Archives: Lithuania

Chernigov

CHERNIGOV   CHERNIHIV (Ukr);  Czernihòw (Pol). A medieval Russian Principality; A Russian province; A Soviet and now Ukrainian oblast (region).  Named after the city of Chernigov (now Chernihiv), which is northeast of Kiev and stands on the River Desna, a tributary … Continue reading

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Central Lithuania

CENTRAL LITHUANIA   Middle Lithuania. Region around Vilnius, the medieval and present capital of Lithuania. Vilnius is now in the east of Lithuania, but the region was “central” in respect of the Great Principality of Lithuania of the later middle ages, … Continue reading

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Brest

BREST Southwestern administrative region in Belarus, named after its capital, which was called BREST LITOVSK until 1921 (the Litovsk signifying that it had belonged to the Great Principality of Lithuania, which later united with Poland). The city stands on the … Continue reading

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Bratslav

BRATSLAV   BRACŁAW (Pol). Palatinate in the Polish Kingdom, on both banks of the River Southern Bug or Boh, named after its capital, which is on the Bug, southeast of Vinnytsia. The lands of the Palatinate of Bratslav formed the east … Continue reading

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Black Russia

BLACK RUSSIA  CZARNORUS. Region on the upper Neman (Belorussian and Russian) or Niemen (Polish), and its tributaries.  It formed the southwest of the old Russian principality of Polotsk. Black Russia became Lithuanian in the mid-13th century (and eventually, by union, … Continue reading

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Białystok

BIAŁYSTOK   Former voivodship (Województwo białostockie) in northeastern Poland, named after its capital (Belostok or Byelostok in Russian). The city was founded in 1320 with the extension of Lithuania into the Podlasia region.  In the final partition of Poland in 1795 … Continue reading

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Biała Podlaska

BIAŁA PODLASKA Later a Voivodship (Województwo bialskopoldlaskie), 1975-99 Found in eastern Poland, south of Białystok, bordered in the east by the River Bug and, across the river, by Belarus. It lay in the south of the ancient region of Podlasia … Continue reading

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Bełz

BEŁZ     Belzas (Lith); BELZ (Ukr). A Palatinate in the Kingdom of Poland before the partitions in the 18th century, named from its capital, which is now in western Ukraine, southeast of Lublin and west of the River Bug. Bełz belonged … Continue reading

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Belarus

BELARUS    BELORUSSIA or BYELORUSSIA, i.e. White Russia, though there is no agreement on why it is so called;  Belorussiya (Russ); Bia³orus (Pol). State in eastern Europe between Russia and Poland.   The east of the country is crossed by the upper … Continue reading

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Aukštaitija

AUKŠTAITIJA (in Polish, Aukštota) Lithuanian name for the upper lands  i.e. eastern Lithuania, around the middle course of the River Nemunas (Niemen).   It formed the core of the Great Principality of Lithuania in the later middle ages.

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