Tag Archives: Byzantine

City States of Italy

CITY-STATES of Italy Of all the regions of Europe the Italian peninsula was the one where city-states most flourished and abounded.   Many of the cities of the Roman era survived;  they had a proud history and a tradition of self-government. … Continue reading

Posted in Germany, Italy | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment


CALABRIA Roman district in the heel of Italy, which became the south of the late Roman province of Apulia et Calabria; A Byzantine theme; A modern Italian region. …but in these two latter cases Calabria means the toe of Italy, … Continue reading

Posted in Italy | Tagged , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Byzantine Spain

BYZANTINE SPAIN In 533-4 the Byzantine Empire overthrew the Vandal Kingdom in northwestern Africa and the islands of the western Mediterranean.   Trouble in Visigothic Spain in the late 540s gave the opportunity to intervene there and in 552 a Byzantine … Continue reading

Posted in Spain | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Byzantine Italy

BYZANTINE ITALY The Italian peninsula lay in the western half of the Roman Empire after its division in the late 3rd century and its permanent separation in 395.   In the late 480s the Ostrogoths, with the sanction of the Emperor … Continue reading

Posted in Germany, Italy | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment


APULIA    PUGLIA. Roman region Medieval Duchy Contemporary Region in southeastern Italy.   It lies mainly east of the Apennines and extends from the spur of Italy round the heel to the instep. Apulia was one of the regions formed in … Continue reading

Posted in Italy | Tagged , , , , , , | 3 Comments


ANTIOCH Crusader state in northwestern Syria,1098-1268, with its capital at Antioch, on the River Asi (Orontes).   Antioch is now the Turkish city of ANTAKYA. The city, Antiochaea in Greek, was founded by the Macedonian ruler of much of western Asia, … Continue reading

Posted in France, Turkey | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment


ACHAEA   AKHAÍA;  Achaia. District in Ancient Greece and a nome (department) in present-day Greece, which gave its name to a Roman province and a Crusader Principality, both larger than the district. The Achaeans were one of the principal peoples who … Continue reading

Posted in Greece | Tagged , , , , , | 1 Comment