Category Archives: Hungary


CRES CHERSO (It). Island in the Gulf of Quarnero (Kvanerić), east of Istria. It belonged to medieval Croatia (and so to Hungary after 1102). For a couple of decades in the 14th century it was under Venetian suzerainty, but had returned to … Continue reading

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COSEL  Or, Kosel.  Former Silesian Duchy, named after a town, now KOZLE, part of Kiedzierzyn-Kozle, which is in southern Poland on the River Odra (Oder) above Opole. After the partition of Upper Silesia in 1281 Cosel was held as a … Continue reading

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CLUJ Județ (county) in northwestern Romania, named after one of the most important cities of Transylvania, gained from Hungary 1918/20 and temporarily returned in 1940-4 (the Hungarian county was called Kolosz). The city of Cluj is called Kolozsvár in Magyar … Continue reading

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CIUC Inter-war county in Romania, which included the upper reaches of the River Olt, a tributary of the Danube. Before 1918-19, it was the Hungarian county of Csík, in eastern Transylvania, and was temporarily returned to Hungary, 1940-4. The capital, … Continue reading

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CIS-LEITHNIA   Or, Cis-Leithania; ZISLEITHANIEN. A name for the Austrian half of the Dual monarchy after the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867. (The non green area of the map) The River Leitha, a rather insignificant stream, separated Niederösterreich from the Kingdom of … Continue reading

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CARPATHO-UKRAINE One of the federal republics in post-Munich Czechoslovakia, 1938-9, and an ephemeral state – for one day in March 1939.   It lay at the eastern end of the Czechoslovakia that had emerged out of the collapse of Austria-Hungary, further … Continue reading

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CARAŞ Inter-war județ (county) in western Romania, before 1918 part of the Hungarian county (megye) of Krasso-Szöreny, the eastern county in the Banat.   After various changes in the postwar period the counties in the Romanian Banat have been two in … Continue reading

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Byzantine Empire

BYZANTINE EMPIRE   Also called in English the Eastern Roman Empire, the Later RomanEmpire, or from the Latin name of the Greek city of Byzantion, site of the later Constantinople, BYZANTIUM. 1. Origins. The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the … Continue reading

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BURGENLAND      Except for Vienna, the smallest Land in Austria in area;  it is the least populated.   It lies on the borders with Hungary, to which it belonged until 1920/1.    Its name comes from the castles (Burgen in German) in the … Continue reading

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BUDIN Turkish name for Buda (now part of Budapest) and also of an Ottoman eyalet (province) in the 17th century.   It lay on both sides of the Danube in the region of Buda, then extended along the right (western) bank … Continue reading

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BRIBIR   Town and district in northern Dalmatia (today in the Republic of Croatia).   The town stood on the River Krka, north of Sibenik. Its ruling family, the Šubići, were for a time the most important in Dalmatia and Croatia, and also … Continue reading

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Breslau ~ Duchy

BRESLAU ~Duchy.   The city, now WROCŁAW, is the largest in Silesia, and stands on the River Odra/Oder. In 1251 the sons of Henry II, Prince of Poland and Duke of Lower Silesia, who had been killed resisting the Mongols in … Continue reading

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BRATISLAVA   POSZONY (Magyar); PRESSBURG (Ger). The capital of Slovakia.   Since 1969 it has formed a separate administrative district from the kraj of Západoslovenský (South Slovakia), though it remains its capital. As Poszony it was the capital of a Hungarian county named … Continue reading

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BRANIČEVO District south of the Danube and east of the River Morava, now in Serbia, and named after a town and former fortress on the River Pek some way above its confluence with the Danube.   The town is no longer … Continue reading

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BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA;  BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA (Ger). A territory administered by Austria-Hungary, later annexed; A region within Yugoslavia, which formed one of the member Republics after 1946; An independent state since 1991. Under the terms of the Treaty of Berlin, July 1878, Bosnia-Herzegovina, though … Continue reading

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