Category Archives: Poland

Cracow

CRACOW KRAKÓW; Krakau (Ger). Principality in medieval Poland; A Free City, 1815-46; A voivodship (Województwo krakowskie) in 20th century Poland. All are named after the city, which was probably founded in the 8th century and which stands on the upper … Continue reading

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Cosel

COSEL  Or, Kosel.  Former Silesian Duchy, named after a town, now KOZLE, part of Kiedzierzyn-Kozle, which is in southern Poland on the River Odra (Oder) above Opole. After the partition of Upper Silesia in 1281 Cosel was held as a … Continue reading

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Congress Poland

CONGRESS POLAND The Congress of Vienna, 1814-5, awarded the greater part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw to the Tsar of Russia as a separate Kingdom from his Russian possessions. It included Płock, Kalisz, Łódź, Częstochowa, Kielce, Zamość, Lublin, Łomża, … Continue reading

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Cilli

CILLI   Or, Cilly. County in the Windisch Mark on the southeastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire.   It was named after its capital, now the town of CELJE in Slovenia, ENE of Ljubljana, northwest of Zagreb, and southwest of Maribor. … Continue reading

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Cieszyn

CIESZYN Polish name for TESCHEN. link_to_follow

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Ciechanów

Voivodship (Województwo ciechanowskie), 1975-99, in east central Poland, named after its capital, which is north of Warsaw. Continue reading

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Chrobatia

CHROBATIA   Or, Northern Croatia or White Croatia. Old name for the upper Vistula region.  When principalities appeared in Poland this region became known as LITTLE POLAND.

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Chernigov

CHERNIGOV   CHERNIHIV (Ukr);  Czernihòw (Pol). A medieval Russian Principality; A Russian province; A Soviet and now Ukrainian oblast (region).  Named after the city of Chernigov (now Chernihiv), which is northeast of Kiev and stands on the River Desna, a tributary … Continue reading

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Chełm

CHEŁM Kholm (Rus). Voivodship (Województwo chełmskie), 1975-99, in eastern Poland, lying on the border with Ukraine and, for a short distance, Belorussia, across the River Bug. It was named after its capital, which is east of Lublin and south of … Continue reading

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Central Lithuania

CENTRAL LITHUANIA   Middle Lithuania. Region around Vilnius, the medieval and present capital of Lithuania. Vilnius is now in the east of Lithuania, but the region was “central” in respect of the Great Principality of Lithuania of the later middle ages, … Continue reading

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Bytów

BYTÓW Polish, and present, name of BÜTOW.

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Bytom

BYTOM Polish, and present, name of BEUTHEN.

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Bydgoszcz

BYDGOSZCZ Former voivodship (Województwo bydgoskie) in inland northern Poland, named after its capital, which stands on the River Brda, a little way above its confluence with the Vistula.   It is northeast of Poznan and SSW of Gdañsk. The city belonged … Continue reading

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Bütow

BÜTOW Small territory, named after the town, now called Bytów, in northern Poland, southeast of Słupsk and WSW of Gdañsk. It once lay on the borders of Poland and Pomerania and was held by the Teutonic Knights until 1466, when Poland … Continue reading

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Büdissen

BÜDISSEN    Budyšin. See BAUTZEN.

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