CIECHANÓW Zichenau (Ger).
Voivodship (Województwo ciechanowskie), 1975-99, in east central Poland, named after its capital, which is north of Warsaw.
The area once belonged to the Polish Principality of Mazovia, was added to Prussia in the Third Partition of 1795, transferred to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807, and became part of Congress Poland under the Tsar in 1815. It was in independent Poland and belonged to the voivodship of Warsaw, 1918-39. Northern Mazovia was annexed by Germany in 1939 and formed the Regierungsbezirk of Zichenau in the province of East Prussia. It extended southwards across the River Vistula, nearly to Warsaw.
In 1975 the voivodship of Ciechanów was created. Its southern border did not quite reach the Vistula and only touched the River Bug at its southeastern corner, at the confluence of that river and the River Narew. It was about the average area, but 40th out of 49 in population, a reflection of Mazovia’s relative poverty.
In 1999 it was abolished and included in the voivodship of Mazowsze, but the northernmost district, including the town of Działdowo, was transferred to Warminsko-Mazurie, which consisted of most of the former East Prussian lands that became Polish in 1945.
Działdowo, once Soldau, was one of the few areas of East Prussia that had become Polish in 1919.