The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast (Region) on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains was formed within the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in 1934 by joining the Chechen and Ingush autonomous regions, formed in 1922 and 1924,. The autonomous oblast became the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936.
The ASSR disappeared in February 1944 when both Chechens and Ingush were deported en masse to Central Asia, because of alleged cooperation with the Germans when they reached the area in 1942. In 1956 the people began to return and in 1957 the Republic was restored, Georgia losing the territory it had gained in 1944. About 70% of the population were either Chechen or Ingush.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Republic split up into Chechnya (in the east) and Ingushetia (in the west) in 1992. The Chechens were pursuing independence from the Russian Federation, whereas the Ingush hoped for Russian support in their dispute with North Ossetia over territory lost in 1944 and not returned in 1957.