Tag Archives: Ottoman Empire


AYDIN   Or Aidan;  anciently Talles. City in southwestern Turkey, on the River Menderes, southeast of Ãzmir (Smyrna), and the capital of:- A Turkish Emirate; A modern province. 1.  The Emirate of Aydin was one of several Turkish ghazi principalities in … Continue reading

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ARMENIA   HAYASDAN; Armeniya (Russian). An  immense region in western Asia, much of it a plateau, to the southeast of the Black Sea and the southwest of the Caspian, including Mount Ararat, the upper course of the River Euphrates, the upper … Continue reading

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ANTIVARI    Italian name of BAR, also called Tivari (Albanian), Antibarum (Latin) and Antibari A port in southern Montenegro, the last name mentioned above gives the meaning clearly, for it is on the opposite side of the Adriatic from Bari. It became … Continue reading

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ANTIOCH Crusader state in northwestern Syria,1098-1268, with its capital at Antioch, on the River Asi (Orontes).   Antioch is now the Turkish city of ANTAKYA. The city, Antiochaea in Greek, was founded by the Macedonian ruler of much of western Asia, … Continue reading

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ANATOLIA   ANADOLU. Peninsula bounded by the Black Sea (north), the Aegean (west) and the eastern Mediterranean (south), the westernmost region of Asia, also called ASIA MINOR.   The eastern limits of Anatolia (whose name means sunrise and hence the east) are … Continue reading

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ALBANIA(1)    SHQIPËRIA. Independent country in the western Balkans since 1913, and a region before that of varying extent. 1. Origins.  Its inhabitants are generally believed to be the descendants of the Illyrians, who lived in much of the western … Continue reading

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AKHALTSIKHE     Or, Achaltsik (old spelling). Town in southern Georgia, on a tributary of the River Kura, not far from the Turkish border.  It was acquired, with the surrounding district, by Russia from the Ottoman Empire in 1829.

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ADZHARIA  Adjaria; Ajaria. Autonomous Republic in southwestern Georgia; capital Batumi.  It lies at the western end of the Lesser Caucasus, on the eastern shores of the Black Sea, and  bordering on Turkey. The region, on the edge of the Byzantine … Continue reading

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ADYGEYA An autonomous Republic in the Caucasus region in southern Russia, forming an enclave within the Krasnodar Territory (Krai) of the Russian Federation.  Adygeya extends from Mounts Fisht and Chigush in the northwestern Caucasus northwards to the lake on the … Continue reading

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