CRACOW KRAKÓW; Krakau (Ger).

  1. Principality in medieval Poland;
  2. A Free City, 1815-46;
  3. A voivodship (Województwo krakowskie) in 20th century Poland.

All are named after the city, which was probably founded in the 8th century and which stands on the upper Vistula.

Cracow was also the seat of a Bishop, who was himself a territorial prince as Duke of Siewierz, a territory in Silesia bought in 1443 and held until 1795.The city became the most important in Małopolska (Little Poland), whose Prince or Duke was recognised as the Senior Prince of Poland after the partition of the Polish lands in 1138 among several Piast princes.

The Senior Prince held his own Principality (for example, the first held Silesia, the second Mazovia) plus Little Poland. After the death of Henry II fighting the Mongols in 1241 the Senior Principate was titular and Little Poland was then often called the Principality or Duchy of Cracow.

In the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 Cracow became part of the Habsburg lands but was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1809. In 1815 the city of Cracow, together with a strip of territory along the upper Vistula, was declared in the Treaty of Vienna to be “for ever a Free, Independent and strictly Neutral City,” under the protection of Austria, Russia and Prussia.

The new city-state lay at the point where the three protecting powers met in the Poland they had divided between them: the Congress Kingdom under the Tsar, the Kingdom of Galicia under the Austrian Emperor, and Prussian Silesia.”

“For ever” came to an end in 1846, when the protecting powers, irritated by Polish conspiracies against them – conspiracies encouraged and helped by the Free City of Cracow – ended Cracow’s independence and added its territory to Austrian Galicia.

The Austrian Emperor added another title to his collection: Grand Duke of Cracow. The conspiracies were bungled and reckless, but the instinct of the three powers was to repress, as though the Poles were ungraciously ungrateful for having had their independence destroyed.

After the First World War Cracow became Polish again and the capital of a large voivodship in southern Poland bearing its name.

During the German occupation, 1939-44, it was the residence of Hans Frank, the FreeGovernor-General of the General Government. After the war it was capital of a smaller voivodship in restored Poland (see KRAKÓW).

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Ancient district in western Scotland, the peninsula that lies between Loch Fyne, on the one hand, and Loch Goil, Loch Long and the Firth of Clyde, on the other.

It belonged to the Scottish Kingdom of Dariada, and was held by a branch of the Cenél Gabráin, called the Cenél Comgaill. This was descended from a prince called Comgall, from whom family and district derived their names.

Cowal became southeastern Argyllshire.

Picture Credit

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Former județ (county) in Romania, once part of Moldavia, bounded in the east by the Prut, and in the south by the Siret and, after their confluence, the Danube.

Its capital, Galați, now gives its name to the equivalent county in modern Romania.

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English: Sfîntu Gheorghe – also known as Sfânt...

English: Sfîntu Gheorghe – also known as Sfântu Gheorghe. In Hungarian (before 1919 and also between 1940 and 1944 it was part of Hungary and) officially called Sepsiszentgyörgy. The town has a 3/4 Hungarian population. Behind the camera TRICOTAJE … The machine is a Gloria CP-12 made in Romania by Semanatoarea which built Claas and Laverda combines under licence. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Present-day județ (county) in central Romania. Before 1918 it formed easternmost Transylvania (the county of Háromszék) and between the wars was, more or less, the Romanian județ of Trei Scaune. Sfîntu Gheorghe, the capital of all these counties, is on the River Olt, northeast of Brașov.

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COUSERANS Or, Conserans.

Coat of arms of Couserans

Coat of arms of Couserans (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

  1. Vicomté in the central Pyrenees;
  2. A diocese, which belonged to the province of Auch.

The Vicomté became separate in the late 10th century, when it was held by the younger son of a Count of Carcassone, as his share of that County. In the early 12th century it became part of the County of Foix, which lay to its east, but later in the century it passed to a member of the family of the Counts of Comminges, which lay to its west. The rights of the Vicomté were eventually scattered among several families through heiresses. In the Ancien Régime Couserans was the southeasternmost corner of the immense gouvernement of Guyenne & Gascony and is now in the Department of the Ariège. The Bishop lived at St Lizier. The diocese was suppressed in 1790.

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"Barry of six, vair and gules", the ...

“Barry of six, vair and gules”, the coat-of-arms of Coucy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Medieval lordship in Picardy in northern France;  the castle and hill-top town of Coucy lie south of St Quentin and north of Soissons.

The lands originally belonged to the Archbishop of Reims, and became a lordship in the 10th century. The earlier lords belonged to the family of Boves; the last three (1310-97) to that of the Counts of Guines. Enguerrand VI (d.1346) married a Habsburg while the first wife of Enguerrand VII (d.1397) was the daughter of Edward III of England. Enguerrand VII’s heiress sold Coucy to the Duke of Orleans, whose grandson became Louis XII in 1498.

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COTTBUS Or, KottbusChosebuz (Sorb).

Map of the District of Cottbus in the German D...

Map of the District of Cottbus in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The districts existed between 1952 and 1990. Most of the district’s area belongs now to the State of Brandenburg. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Town on the River Spree, southeast of Berlin, northeast of Dresden, a Stadtkreis in southeastern Brandenburg.

It belonged to Lower Lusatia (Niederlausitz), which was acquired by Brandenburg in 1448. When the rest of Lower Lusatia was lost in 1462 the district around Cottbus remained an enclave of Brandenburg within the Kingdom of Bohemia (within Saxony from 1635). In 1807 it was transferred to Saxony but in 1815 returned to Prussia.

In the German Democratic Republic a district of Cottbus was created in 1952, mainly from the south of the abolished Land of Brandenburg, but including some districts of Niederlausitz around the towns of Hoyerswerda and Weißwasser, previously in the Land of Sachsen.

Just before Germany was reunited the Länder were reconstituted in 1990 and the district of Cottbus disappeared, though in Brandenburg there are now both a Stadtkreis and a Landkreis of Cottbus.

The district around Cottbus still has a Slav-speaking population, descended from the Sorbs, who were subjected in the 10th century.

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Carte du Réseau des Chemins de Fer des Côtes-d...

Carte du Réseau des Chemins de Fer des Côtes-du-Nord (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

CÔTES-DU NORD  See Côtes-d’Armor .

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CÔTES-D’ARMOR  The Département des Côtes-d’Armor (22) is in northwestern France and was called CÔTES-DU-NORD until 1991.

It was formed from northern Brittany in 1790.  Armor is an old Celtic name for the coastlands of Brittany and Normandy, and Armorica was the Roman name for Brittany. The former name, meaning “Northern coasts”, is vague:  the department could have been anywhere on the Channel coast.

The Côtes-du-Nord was in occupied France, 1940-4. In 1942 the Vichy government placed it under the authority of the Regional Prefect at Rennes for police and economic matters.

The department is today in the Bretagne administrative region.

The capital is St Brieuc, which is also the bishopric.. The sub-prefectures for the other arrondissements are Dinan (in the east), Guincamp (west-central) and Lannion (northwest). Loudéac, in  the south, was a sub-prefecture, 1800-1926.

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CÔTE-D’OR  The Département de la Côte-d’Or (21) is in east central France.

It was formed in 1790 from the northern part of Burgundy, and named after a range of hills. It is one of the principal wine districts of France.

The department was in occupied France, 1940-4. In 1941 the Vichy government placed it and four other departments under the authority of the Regional Prefect at Dijon, its capital, for police and economic matters.

It has been in the Bourgogne region since 1960.

The capital is Dijon. The sub-prefectures for the other arrondissements are or have been Beaune (in the south) and Montbard (northwest). The latter lay between Châtillon-sur-Seine (further north) and Semur-en-Auxois, and became a sub-prefecture when they were abolished in 1926.

The Bishopric is at Dijon, which first became a see in 1731 when the diocese of Langres was divided.

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The northernmost province in the Calabria region in southwest Italy, named from its capital, which is high in the valley of the River Crati, the valley where Robert Guiscard began his career.

In the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies the province was called Calabria Citeriore.

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English: View of Cosel in Upper Silesia Deutsc...

English: View of Cosel in Upper Silesia Deutsch: Ansicht von Kosel (Cosel) in Oberschlesien (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

COSEL  Or, Kosel.  Former Silesian Duchy, named after a town, now KOZLE, part of Kiedzierzyn-Kozle, which is in southern Poland on the River Odra (Oder) above Opole.

After the partition of Upper Silesia in 1281 Cosel was held as a Duchy, together with Beuthen, which lay to the east. In 1355 it passed to the Duchy of Oels and in 1472 to Münsterberg.

In 1475 it was occupied by Hungary until it reverted to the Dukes of Oppeln in 1490. It was acquired by the Habsburgs in 1532, by Prussia in 1740 and by Poland in 1945.

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CORVEY Or, Corvei or Korvei. Imperial Abbey on the River Weser above Hameln in northwestern Germany;  ENE of Paderborn.

It was founded by two cousins of Charlemagne in 816 as a daughter Abbey to that of Corbie in Picardy in northern France. Around the Abbey was a small princely territory on the left bank of the Weser. The Abbot was a member of the Lower Rhenish & Westphalian Imperial Circle. In 1792 the Abbey became a Bishopric.

Its territory was secularised in 1802-3 and, with Fulda and the city of Dortmund, it became a principality for the son of the dispossessed Stadtholder of the Netherlands. Occupied by France in 1806, it was placed in the lands held by Napoleon’s brother Jerome as King of Westphalia in 1807. In 1815 it was acquired by Prussia, and is now in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

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Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, Galicia, A C...

Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, Galicia, A Coruña, Spain which houses the tomb of St. James son of Zebedee. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The town and port, called A CORUÑA in Galician, LA CORUÑA in Spanish, and Corunna in English, is the capital of the northwesternmost province (C) of Spain, which is named after it.

The province was formed in 1833 from the northwest of the old province and former Kingdom of Galicia, and now belongs to the autonomous Community of Galicia, created in the era of transition after the death of Franco.

Corunna is illustrious enough, but the most illustrious city in the province is Santiago de Compostela, the seat of an Archbishop, its cathedral the burial place of St James (to the same degree as St Mark’s in Venice is the last resting-place of the evangelist), and a still continuing place of pilgrimage. It is Santiago, and not Corunna, that is the capital of the Galician Community.

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