Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Duke of Castro, son of Odoardo I Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, and Margherita Medici, father of Odoardo II Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as portrayed in: Il Tempo mostra il ritratto di Ranuccio II alle figure allegoriche di Parma, Piacenza e Castro; Parma, Galleria Nazionale. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
District in the northwest of the Lazio region of central Italy, a part of the Papal States, which was given as a Duchy to Pier Luigi Farnese, the bastard son of the reigning Pope, Paul III, in 1537.
Pier Luigi became Duke of Parma in 1545 as well, though Castro (or Castro-Ronciglione) only remained with the Dukes of Parma until 1649. In that year the Bishop of Castro was murdered and the Pope, holding the chief minister of Parma to blame, confiscated the Duchy.
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