Monthly Archives: September 2013


CARPATHO-UKRAINE One of the federal republics in post-Munich Czechoslovakia, 1938-9, and an ephemeral state – for one day in March 1939.   It lay at the eastern end of the Czechoslovakia that had emerged out of the collapse of Austria-Hungary, further … Continue reading

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CARNIOLA    KRAIN  (Ger); KRANJSKA (Slovene). A Mark on the southeastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire; An Austrian Crownland; Briefly a province of the French Empire. Most of it lay in the upper basin of the River Sava, which rose … Continue reading

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CARMONA One of the Taifa statelets in Andalusia in southern Spain in the 11th century, named after a town, called Carmo by the Romans and Karmuna by the Arabs, lying ENE of Seville.   It stands on a plateau west of … Continue reading

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CARMARTHENSHIRE    SIR GAERFYRDDIN. County of southern Wales before 1975. A unitary authority (and county) since 1996. From about the year 1110, there was a Norman and  royal castle at Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin), which stands on the lower Tywi (Towy).  Although it … Continue reading

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CARLOW   Cheatharlach. Inland county in southeastern Ireland, in the province of Leinster.   It is drained in the east by the River Slaney, which flows to Wexford Harbour, and in the west by the River Barrow, which flows to Waterford Harbour, … Continue reading

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CARLAT   Carladais (pays). Vicomté in southwestern Auvergne;  Carlat is southeast of Aurillac. Near the end of the 10th century, the Vicomte assumed the title of Count.   The lands were subsequently divided between two brothers.    The portion belonging to one passed … Continue reading

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Carinthian Mark

CARINTHIAN MARK   KÄRNTNER MARK.   Also called the CARANTANIAN MARK. District in the east of the Duchy of Carinthia in the 10th and 11th centuries, protecting its eastern flank. Adalbero of Eppenstein, who held the Mark in 1011, was promoted to … Continue reading

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CARINTHIA   KÄRNTEN;  Koruska (Slovene). Duchy in the Holy Roman Empire; Crownland in the Austrian Empire; Briefly a province in the French Empire Land in modern Austria. It is an Alpine region, on the southern side of the range, and is … Continue reading

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CARIGNANO Town in Piedmont in northwest Italy, south of Turin. The title of Prince of Carignano was held by a branch of the House of Savoy founded by Thomas Francis (d.1656), a younger son of Duke Charles Emmanuel I.   In … Continue reading

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CARIGNAN The town of Carignan is in northeastern France, close to the Belgian frontier and southeast of Sedan. It was once the district of Yvoy in the east of the Principality of  Sedan, which was acquired by France in 1641 … Continue reading

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CARELIA See KARELIA. link_to_follow

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CARDIGANSHIRE   The Welsh translation is SIR ABERTEIFI;  the Welsh name for the region is CEREDIGION. County of western Wales until 1975. Cardiganshire was formed in 1284 by joining the royal territory around the town and castle of Cardigan with the … Continue reading

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CARDIGAN Town in western Wales on the Bay named after it and at the mouth of the River Teifi (hence its modern Welsh name, ABERTEIFI).   Originally it was called Din Geraint and belonged to the Welsh Kingdom of Ceredigion. It … Continue reading

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CARDIFF The city of Cardiff, the administrative capital of Wales, was a county borough, 1889-1974. In the system created by the Local Government Act of 1972 it became the Cardiff district in the county of South Glamorgan. In the reforms … Continue reading

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