Monthly Archives: August 2013


CALABRIA Roman district in the heel of Italy, which became the south of the late Roman province of Apulia et Calabria; A Byzantine theme; A modern Italian region. …but in these two latter cases Calabria means the toe of Italy, … Continue reading

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CAITHNESS Pictish province in northernmost mainland Scotland; A county in the northeast of that region, which still survives as a ceremonial county; A district in the Highland Region, 1975-96. Its name meant headland of Caitt. Caitt (or Cat) was one … Continue reading

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CAIRA Italian name of CHUR. link_to_follow

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CAHUL County in Romania between the world wars, a part of Bessarabia.   It lay east of the River Prut and south of Kishinev. Russian pre-1918, Soviet post-1940/1944, now in Moldova.

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CAHORS City of southwest France, on the River Lot, a tributary of the Garonne, and north of Toulouse.   It was the capital of  QUERCY (both city and province are called after the Cadurci, a Gaulish tribe) and the seat of … Continue reading

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CAGLIARI One of the hereditary judgeships into which Sardinia was divided in the middle ages; A modern Italian province. The city of Cagliari, today the capital of Sardinia, is in the south of the island, on the Gulf named after … Continue reading

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CAFFA See KAFFA. link_to_follow

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CAERPHILLY Unitary authority in south eastern Wales, effective from 1996 and with the status of a borough.    It was formed by uniting the Rhymney Valley district in Mid Glamorgan and the Islwyn district in Gwent. It takes its name from … Continue reading

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CAERNARVONSHIRE    Or, CAERNARFONSHIRE (English v gives the pronunciation of Welsh f);  Carnarvonshire is an older English spelling;  the Welsh form is SIR GAERNARFON. County in northwestern Wales until 1975. After the final destruction of the Welsh Principality of Gwynedd in … Continue reading

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Caernarfonshire & Merionethshire

CAERNARFONSHIRE & MERIONETHSHIRE The name proposed for a new unitary authority in northwest Wales from 1996, which would unite the districts of Arfon, Dwyfor and Meirionydd, then in the soon-to-be abolished county of Gwynedd.   In fact the unitary authority took … Continue reading

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CAERLEON Lordship in the Welsh Marches, now in southeastern Wales.   The town of Caerleon stands on the River Usk, some miles above Newport, and was once a Roman fort (its name means fortress of the legion). The Lordship was established … Continue reading

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CAEREINION Commote (small district) in the medieval Principality of South Powys in eastern Wales.   It was crossed by the River Banw, a tributary of the Vrynwy, the river which formed its northern border.   From 1536 it was part of northern … Continue reading

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CAEN   Généralité for Lower Normandy in northern France, formed in 1542 when the généralité of Normandy was divided.   It was named after its capital, the city which had long been the capital of Lower Normandy. It lost some territory to … Continue reading

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CÁCERES Spanish province (CC), on the borders with Portugal, mostly drained by the River Tajo (Tagus);  the second largest province in Spain.  It was formed in 1833 from Alta (Upper) Extremadura.   Since 1983 it has been the northern province in … Continue reading

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Byzantine Spain

BYZANTINE SPAIN In 533-4 the Byzantine Empire overthrew the Vandal Kingdom in northwestern Africa and the islands of the western Mediterranean.   Trouble in Visigothic Spain in the late 540s gave the opportunity to intervene there and in 552 a Byzantine … Continue reading

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