Inland province (BU) in the north of Spain, named after its capital, which stands on the River Alanzón, a tributary of the Duero. The province has a exclave around the town of Treviño – the Condado de Treviño – within the province of Álava, and two small ones, lying just within the northwest of the Community of La Rioja, south of Miranda de Ebro, the easternmost town in the province of Burgos. In the west of the province, and southwest of the city of Burgos, are two small enclaves: one, around Villodrigo, belonging to Palencia, and the other, a fragment of Valladolid.
The province was formed in the 18th century from Old Castile and its lands are now part of the autonomous community of Castilla y León. It is similar in extent to the County of Castile after it had been expanded in the later 9th century as a result of the decision to repopulate the lands north of the Duero. It is a large province, 11th in area, but only 38th (out of 50) in population.
The city of Burgos, seat of a Bishop from 1068, was founded in 884 at the time that the thinly populated frontier zone between the Kingdom of Leon and Moslem Spain was being repopulated. It became the capital of the County of Castile and was the first capital of the Kingdom until the capture of Toledo in 1085. It served as capital again for the military and nationalist administration during the Civil War, 1936-9.