BUKOVINA BUKOVYNA (Ukr); BUCOVINA (Rom); Buchenland (Ger).
Region now mostly in the southern part of the western Ukraine but partly in northeastern Romania. It lies between the Carpathians and the River Dniester, contains the upper waters of the River Siret (Sereth), and is crossed by the River Prut.
The Bukovina – the beech tree country – became part of emerging Moldavia in the 14th century, was occupied by Russian troops in 1769 and by Austrian in 1774. The following year the Ottoman Empire, suzerain of Moldavia, ceded the region to Austria, which had recently acquired neighbouring Galicia, to which the Bukovina was added in 1787.
In 1849, in the reshaping of Austria after the revolutions, Bukovina became a separate Crownland, with the rank of a Duchy. In 1867 it was placed by the Compromise in the Austrian half of the domestically divided Empire, where it was the easternmost of the Crownlands, a very long way from the Vorarlberg, the westernmost.
In 1919 it was ceded to Romania, but in 1940 the northern and greater part was surrendered to the Soviet Union. The war in 1941 brought northern Bukovina back to Romania, but in 1944 it returned to Ukraine.