BUKHARA Bokhara (older spelling).
Emirate, then briefly a republic, in Central Asia, named after their capital, which is now in Uzbekistan, west of Samarkand.
The city was taken by Genghiz Khan in 1220. It became the capital of the Uzbek Emirate of Bukhara in 1506, which had become the most powerful state in central Asia a century later. Its power was destroyed by Iran in 1740 but the Emirate recovered its independence in 1753. Its southern and western borders lay in the vicinity of the River Oxus (Amudarya) and its territory included Samarkand.
In 1868 Samarkand was ceded to Russia and the Emirate came under the protection of the Russian Empire, bringing Russian influence to the northern borders of Afghanistan. In 1920 the Emirate was overthrown by Soviet forces and Bukhara became an autonomous republic in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. In 1924 the republic was abolished and its lands were divided up. Turkmenistan received the lands along the Amudarya in the west, the eastern districts went to Tajikistan, while the greater part, including the city of Bukhara, was added to Uzbekistan.