Province in northeastern Scotland, at the eastern end of the shoulder of Scotland, south of the Moray Firth. It lay between the Rivers Don and Deveron and had been the north of the Pictish province of Ce. Ce was named after one of the sons of Cruithne, the legendary founder of Pictland. Buchan was one of the mormaerships of the Kingdom of the Picts, and was an earldom in the Kingdom of Scotland by the middle of the 12th century.
The early Earls lasted from c.1150 to 1214. Margaret, the heiress of the last Earl and the wife of William Comyn, died c.1244. The last Comyn Earl died in 1308 and was forfeited by King Robert, of the rival family of Bruce. The Earl’s daughter married the Englishman Henry Beaumont, who was recognised by English Kings as Earl of Buchan until his death in 1340. The present Earldom was bestowed on one of the Stewarts in 1470, passed by an heiress, who died in 1580, to the family of Douglas of Lochleven, and by another, who died in 1628, to cadets of the Erskine Earls of Mar.
The province of Buchan became the north of the county of Aberdeenshire. When the Grampian region was formed in 1975, the old province was united with eastern Banffshire to form the district of Banff & Buchan. The district was abolished in 1996 and its territory included in Aberdeenshire.