The city of Göttingen stands on the River Leine in southeast Niedersachsen, northeast of Kassel, and is capital of the southernmost Landkreis in Niedersachsen, which is named after it.
It lay within the territory of the Counts of Northeim (which is near Göttingen) and came to Henry the Lion in the mid-12th century following the extinction of the last Northeim branch, the Counts of Boyneburg, in 1144 and the elimination in 1152 of the Winzenburgs who had obtained much of their inheritance. Göttingen was part of the share of Henry the Lion’s eldest son, the Count Palatine Henry, after 1195, and came to Otto the Child in 1227. In 1267 it was part of the share of Duke Albert of Brunswick.
After his death in 1279 his second son became Duke of Brunswick-Göttingen. In 1345, after the death of the eldest son of the first Duke, his lands were divided between his two surviving brothers, the younger becoming Duke of Göttingen. The last Duke, Duke Otto the One-Eyed, did not die until 1463, but in 1442 handed over the government to Duke William the Old of Brunswick-Calenberg. In the partition of 1495 Göttingen became part of the Calenberg Duchy and remained united with Calenberg thereafter.