- District in classical Greece (when its chief town was Thebes)
- A nome (department) in modern Greece (capital Livadia).
Boeotia is the isthmus which lies between the Gulf of Corinth and the Strait of Euboea, and which connects the peninsula of Attica with northern Greece.
Boeotia belonged to the Byzantine Empire until it became part of the Crusader lordship of Athens in the aftermath of the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204. In 1379 a group of Navarrese adventurers grabbed Thebes, though it was reunited with Athens under Nerio Acciajuoli as Duke in 1388.
When Nerio died in 1394, Athens came under Venetian control, but Thebes was held by his bastard son, Antonio, who regained Athens in 1402. When Athens was taken by the Turks in 1456 Franco Acciajuoli was allowed to keep Thebes and Boeotia, but he was strangled in 1460 and Boeotia was became part of the Ottoman Empire until Greek independence in 1830.
Since then Voiotía has either been a separate department or, as in the 1930s, joined with Attica. It now belongs to the region of Stereá Ellás (Central Greece).