The southeastern county of Scotland before 1974;
- A district in the Borders region until 1996;
- A ceremonial county since 1974.
The River Tweed formed much of its southern border and the northern border was in the Lammermuir Hills; to the east was the North Sea and in the northwest Lauder Water.
There was a sheriff in the Royal Burgh of Berwick in the reign of David I (1124-53), but the town of Berwick was several times lost by Scotland, permanently from 1482. Duns became the capital of the county. Ecclesiastically, Berwickshire lay within the diocese of St Andrew’s until 1633, then in Edinburgh.
In the reorganisation of 1975, the county became part of the Borders region and the bulk of it survived until 1996 as a district keeping the old county name, though the Lauder area was transferred to Ettrick & Lauderdale and one parish to the Roxburgh district. The district of Berwickshire kept its Lord Lieutenant. The district was abolished in 1996 when the Scottish Borders became a unitary authority but its area remains a ceremonial county.