City in northern Italy, northeast of Milan;
- A province in the Lombardia region.
The city was one of the virtually independent cities of northern Italy in the 12th and much of the 13th centuries, though in the later 13th century the influence of Milan was strong. It fell completely under the domination of the Visconti, the Lords of that city, for much of the period 1315-1428.
Visconti rule was briefly interrupted in the early 1330s, when John of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia, was active in northern Italy, and again between 1408 and 1419, when Pandolfo Malatesta controlled Bergamo and Brescia. In 1428 Venice pushed its frontier to the upper Adda and Bergamo was to remain Venetian until the destruction of the Republic in 1797.
It then became part of the Cisalpine Republic and later of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, in which it was capital of the Department of Serio. In 1815 it was included in Austrian Lombardy, until it was ceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1859, at the beginning of Italian unification.
The province is largely Alpine, only partly extending into the Po plain.