Duchy formed in 1392 when the three sons of Stephen II divided the lands in Upper and Lower Bavaria they had jointly ruled since his death in 1375. The eldest brother, Stephen III, received the northwestern lands (the town of Ingolstadt is on the Danube below Neuburg and above Regensburg).
He was more of a soldier than an administrator and his son, Louis VII, spent much time in France where his sister Isabella was the giddy Queen of the intermittently insane Charles VI. In Bavaria he carried on a long feud with his cousin, Henry of Landshut. His son, Louis VIII the Lame, deposed him in 1443. When the son died in 1445 the father was in one of Henry of Landshut’s prisons where he died in 1447, and Bavaria-Ingolstadt became part of the Landshut Duchy.