BAUTZEN Earlier Budissen, German form of Budyšin (Sorb).
Town on the upper River Spree, now in eastern Sachsen in eastern Germany.
The district around it was held by the Prince of Poland when he acquired the Mark of Lusatia as a fief in 1002. It was in the hands of the Margrave of Meissen by 1046 and perhaps from 1034. It passed to the Duke of Bohemia in 1081 and was given by him to his son-in-law, Wipprecht, Count of Groitzsch in 1084, reverting to Bohemia in 1135. Apart from an interlude between 1143 and 1156, when it belonged to Meissen, Bautzen then remained in Bohemia until 1253 when it passed to the Margrave Otto IV of Brandenburg, husband of a Bohemian princess. In 1319 it returned to Bohemia, as did its eastern neighbour, Görlitz, in 1329.
The two districts of Bautzen and Görlitz together become known in the 14th century as UPPER LUSATIA. There remains a Slav-speaking population in the area, descendants of the Sorbs.