- Medieval county
- Briefly a Canton in the Helvetic Republic
The name being taken from the town, which stands on the River Limmat, northwest of Zürich.
In the 11th century Baden belonged to the County of Lenzburg, which covered much of the region of the lower Aare and Reuss. The County was partitioned in 1101, the junior line holding the County of Baden. They died out in the male line in 1172 and the County passed to the Counts of Kiburg, who were in turn succeeded by the Counts of Habsburg in 1264. In 1415 the Habsburgs were driven out of the Aargau region, including Baden, which was held as a subject territory by the six Swiss districts which had captured it: Zürich, Lucerne, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, and Glarus. Bern also shared in the government of Baden from 1427, and Uri from 1446. From 1712 only the Protestant districts of Bern, Zürich and Glarus held Baden as a subject territory.
In 1798 the French revolutionaries put an end to the subject territories in the Swiss Confederation, and created a new Helvetic Republic, whose Cantons were more like the departments of revolutionary France than the districts of old Switzerland. Among them was the Canton of Baden, which united the district around Baden with the lands of the Freie Ämter and the Abbey of Muri to the south. In 1803 the Swiss reverted to a federal form of government and the Baden and Aargau Cantons, formed in 1798, were merged to form the (still surviving) Canton of Aargau.