Pays in Burgundy in east central France, and once a county. It gets its name from Alesia, the Gaulish city which was the scene of the victory of Caesar over Vercingetorex in 52 BC, and whose site is believed to be Mont Auxois northeast of Semur, which is now in the west of the Department of Côte d’Or.
The district around Semur-en-Auxois came into the hands of the Duke of Burgundy in the 11th century. The rest of Auxois, the County of Grignon, was acquired by Duke Hugh II (1102-43) and given to a younger son, whose heiress reputedly precipitated her four husbands out of this world. From her daughters the Dukes of Burgundy reacquired their lands, piecemeal.