1. A district in ancient Greece; 
  2. A nome (department) in modern Greece;
  3. A region since 1987.
English: Map of Attica departments, Greece Ελλ...

English: Map of Attica departments, Greece Ελληνικά: Συγκροτήματα Αττικής (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Much of it is a peninsular extension southeastwards of central Greece, but it also includes part of the isthmus that links the Peleponnese with the rest of Greece.   Attica thus occupies a strategic position, and its capital, Athens, was the most important city in Ancient Greece just as it is in the modern country. 

In the Byzantine Empire, however, Attica was a backwater.  It became the main part of the Crusader Duchy of Athens in 1205, then was ruled by the Ottoman Turks from 1460 until Greek independence in 1830.  

Until 1987 Attica was part of the Region of Sterea Ellás-Evvoia (Central Greece & Euboea), but then it became a Region with only one department, itself.

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