County in Provence, in the Kingdom of Burgundy, named after the city near the head of the Rhône delta, which is now in southern France.
Arles was a Roman city, and in the late Empire was for a time the capital of Gaul. It was capital of a Carolingian county; Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, 926-47, was the son of one of the Counts. He had dominated Provence for several years, but in 933 accepted its union with the Kingdom of Burgundy. In mid-century two brothers ruled in Provence as Counts, one of them residing at Arles.
The Kingdom of Burgundy was later (when it was part of the Empire) called the Kingdom of Arles or the Arelate, the Latin name of Arles.
Arles was the seat of an Archbishop from the 5th century until 1790. His province lay in coastal Provence.