Eastern nome (department) in the Peloponnesos Region in southern Greece, on the northern and western shores of the Gulf of Argolis.
In the late 12th century, with the Byzantine Empire incompetently led, a local noble, Leo Sgouros, the hereditary archon of Nauplia, revolted against the Empire and gained control over the cities of Corinth and Argos. In 1201 he advanced towards Athens and occupied much of Attica, though he did not take the city.
By the time he died in 1208 he had lost practically all he had gained to the men of the Fourth Crusade, who pushed into Greece after taking Constantinople in 1204. Argolis itself was occupied early in 1205 by the Crusader commander, Boniface of Montferrat, though the cities of Argos and Nauplia held out. They were taken in 1212 (Nauplia quite possibly in 1210). Othon de la Roche, who had played a considerable part in the conquest was granted Argolis as a fief by the Prince of Achaea, the ruler of the Peloponnese; he was also made lord of Athens by the Latin Emperor.
Argolis remained associated with the Lordship (which became the Duchy) of Athens until 1311 when the Catalan Company defeated and killed the Duke, Walter of Brienne, and took over Attica and Boeotia in 1311. His heirs (at first of the family of Brienne and then, by marriage, of Enghien) managed to hold on to Argolis, but in 1377, when Guy d’Enghien died, Maria, the young heiress of Argos and Nauplia, came under the protection of Venice. She was later married to a patrician of Venice and when he died in 1388 she sold Argos and Nauplia to the Republic.
Theodore, the Greek Despot of the Morea, preempted Venice by occupying the cities, though he handed them over in 1394. Argos, the inland city, fell to the Ottomans in 1463, Nauplia, on the coast, in 1540. Venice recovered the region for a few years, 1687-1715.
Argolis became part of the new independent Greece in 1830 and belonged to the nome of Corinthia & Argolis. Since the Second World War the two have been separate.