ANTIVARI    Italian name of BAR, also called Tivari (Albanian), Antibarum (Latin) and Antibari

Bar [MNE], 2011, Il Porto di Bar.

Bar [MNE], 2011, Il Porto di Bar. (Photo credit: Fiore S. Barbato)

A port in southern Montenegro, the last name mentioned above gives the meaning clearly, for it is on the opposite side of the Adriatic from Bari.

It became the seat of a Roman Catholic Bishop in the 11th century, promoted to Archbishop in 1089 (the coastlands were Catholic, but the hinterland was, and remained, Orthodox).  Antivari was often self-governing, but strong rulers in Zeta or Duklja (the former names of Montenegro) or in Serbia would sometimes control the coast.

Antivari was a Venetian possession for a short while in the early 15th century, and more permanently from 1443 until 1571, when it became part of the Ottoman Empire.

By the Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in March 1878, Montenegro was given three ports, but the revising Congress of Berlin in June/July reduced them to Antivari alone, and furthermore required that it should be demilitarised.

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