A small lordship in northwestern Germany held directly from the Holy Roman Emperor; the town of Anholt is on the River Ouder IJssel, north of Kleve and northwest of Wesel. Today it is in Germany, though very close to the Netherlands border, belonging to the Borken Landkreis in Nordrhein-Westfalen.
The lordship was held by several families in succession, coming in the 15th century to the Dutch family of Bronckhorst. In 1641 the Bronckhorst heiress of Anholt married the Prince of Salm. In 1739, when this line died out, one of its heiresses was married to another member of the Salm family, with the result that Anholt was held by the Princes of Salm-Salm. The Lordship belonged to the Lower Rhenish/Westphalian Circle, and in the Imperial Diet was a member of the Westphalian Grafenbank.
The revolutionary era in the 1790s deprived the Prince of Salm-Salm of his territories on the left-bank of the Rhine, but he was compensated in 1802-3 with the lands of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster that were adjacent to Anholt. Salm-Salm joined the Rhine Confederation in 1806 but was annexed by France in 1810. In 1815 Anholt became part of Prussia.