County in the Holy Roman Empire, in western Germany; the River Ahr is a left bank tributary of the Rhine, the confluence being below Coblenz but above Bonn. The town of Ahr (now Altenahr) stands on the middle course of the river. The lands are now in the north of the Land of Rheinland-Pfalz, where the Kreis is called Ahrweiler.
The County was partitioned among male heirs, the normal practice in Germany. In 1246 the Count of Altenahr died. His uncle and heir was a priest, who gave his lands to the Archbishopric of Cologne. The County of Neuenahr (Neuenahr is further down the river from Altenahr) survived. It passed by heiresses first to the lords of Saffenberg (c.1363), then to the Counts of Virneburg (c.1420). When the Counts of Virneburg became extinct in 1545 Neuenahr was added to the Duchy of Jülich(-Cleves).