Monthly Archives: April 2013


AUGUSTENBURG  AUGUSTENBORG (Dan). A castle on the Danish island of Als (Alsen), off the eastern coast of the Duchy of Slesvig, built by Ernst Gunther (d.1689) and named after his wife, Auguste. Ernst Gunther’s grandfather, Hans, a younger son of … Continue reading

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AUGSBURG A Bishopric; An Imperial Free City. The city of Augsburg is situated in the east of the Duchy of Swabia and in the Province of Mainz;  it stands on the River Lech, tributary of the Danube, and is now in … Continue reading

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AUDE The Département de l’Aude (11) is in southern France, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea.   The River Aude, which rises in the Pyrénées-Orientales, flows north and northeastwards through the west of the department, until it turns eastward at Carcassone to … Continue reading

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AUCHTERARDER Small sheriffdom in central Scotland – the town lies southwest of Perth, on the road to Stirling.   The sheriffdom was in existence in 1290, the year the Crown became vacant, but soon disappeared into the sheriffdom of Perth, certainly … Continue reading

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AUCH An Archbishopric; A généralité during the Ancien Régime in southwestern France.   The city of Auch, which stands on the River Gers, was formerly the capital of the County of Armagnac, and since 1790 of the Department of the … Continue reading

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AUBE The Département de l’Aube (10) is in east central France, lying to the southeast of Paris.   The Seine flows generally north-north-westwards across its centre, while the River Aube itself lies to the east, roughly parallel to the Seine, until … Continue reading

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ATTICA    ATTÍKI. A district in ancient Greece;  A nome (department) in modern Greece; A region since 1987. Much of it is a peninsular extension southeastwards of central Greece, but it also includes part of the isthmus that links the Peleponnese … Continue reading

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Atlantic Archipelago

ATLANTIC ARCHIPELAGO A name used for the BRITISH ISLES by those who believe the normal term has overtones of British supremacy over Ireland.

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ATHOS See MOUNT ATHOS. link_to_follow

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ATHOLL    Or, Athole.  Scottish province on the southern slopes of the Grampian Mountains, including Glens Garry and Tilt, Loch Rannoch, part of the Tay valley, and the towns of Blair Atholl, Pitlochry and Dunkeld (which was its episcopal see). Athfodla … Continue reading

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ATHENS     ATHÍNAI.   Capital of Greece and of ATTICA, it also gave its name to the Crusader Duchy of Athens, 1205-1460, though the actual capital of the Duchy was Thebes, which was then bigger than Athens. After the Crusaders had captured … Continue reading

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ASTURIAS Early Kingdom in northern Spain between the Cantabrian Mountains and the Bay of Biscay;  A province until 1833; An autonomous community (O) in modern Spain, capital Oviedo. Asturias was the first of the Christian Kingdoms to emerge after the … Continue reading

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ASTRAKHAN Russian city on the delta of the Volga, and capital of:- A Tatar Khanate; An Imperial province; A present-day region. The Khanate emerged in 1465 as a result of the disintegration of the Khanate of the Golden Horde.   It … Continue reading

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ASTORGA   City (founded by the Romans, Astorica Augusta) Situated in the León province in northwest Spain, WSW of León.  It lay in the devastated border zone between Christian and Moslem Spain, and was rebuilt by King Ordono I (850-66).  For seven … Continue reading

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ASTI City, the seat of a Bishop, in northwestern Italy, west of Alessandria and ESE of Turin; A present-day province in Piedmont. The city enjoyed considerable independence in the 12th and 13th centuries, and was a member of the anti-Imperial … Continue reading

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